Some letters, like “c” and “q”, are totally missing from Gregg; there’s absolutely no sound for “c” besides those already represented by “k” and “s”. Having said that, you will find typical phonemes in English—“sh”, “th”, “ch”—that need a mixture of letters into the Roman alphabet, but can each be written with a solitary letter in Gregg. “Though,” which, in longhand, requires six complex symbols strung as well as seven brief ligatures, is rendered with two brief shots in Gregg: “th-o.” But Gregg goes even more, eliding unstressed vowels and unvoiced consonants to access the phonetic nugget for the word: “bed” is created as “b-d”; “act” as “a-k”; “done” as “d-n”. This economy of spelling saves another 10 % associated with time that is note-taker’s.
Nevertheless the impact that is biggest from Gregg shorthand arises from its systematic way of abbreviation. For example, virtually every letter in Gregg, compiled by it self, represents a word that is common. Some are employed for a few various terms, with respect to the context. Our Gregg friend “b” can suggest “be”, “by”, or “but”. The Gregg letter “r” can suggest “are”, “our”, or “hour.” The Gregg letter “t” can indicate “it” or “at.” In this manner, nearly 100 of the very most typical terms in English is rendered in a solitary swing. Likewise, most typical English terms have actually an abbreviated spelling of just one or two shots. The elegant Gregg form of “b-r,” for example, stands for “bring” and it is printed in an instantaneous. right Here it really is once more:
And, since 60 % of talked English is composed of about 600 of those typical terms, brief forms play an enormous part is quickening Gregg. “Brief form” is clearly a term that is technical Gregg. Anybody can discover the Gregg alphabet in a day and most likely increase their speed that is writing to be truly fast—like the rest of the couple of Gregg-powered court reporters into the federal courts who remove testimony at a lot more than 200 terms per minute—you need to memorize dozens or a huge selection of typical abbreviations.
That sounds difficult unless you understand that the head is chock-a-block with common English abbreviations, almost all of that you simply discovered naturally while you required them. Gregg isn’t any various. And also the Gregg versions are in minimum more systematic, so that they accrue quickly.
Nevertheless the brief type is a lot more than a straightforward abbreviation, it is the distillation for the fundamental premise of shorthand: never ever compose significantly more than is essential to comprehend it later. Applying this concept, a large number of long, Latinate terms are reduced to three or four letters in Gregg: “a-b-a-nd” for “abandon,” “h-u-nd” for hundred, “n-a-sh” for “nation.” Brief kinds had been specially essential within the polysyllabic lexicons of medicine and law—fields that, not coincidentally, had been additionally epicenters of shorthand in Gregg’s heyday.
One specially fertile way of abbreviation in Gregg may be the usage of single letters as stand-ins for typical prefixes or suffixes, according to whether they’re written before or following the terms they modify. As prefixes, these letters may be either attached with or detached through the term. As an example, a detached “g,” written right before and above a word represents “grand,” as in “grandmother,” but additionally like in “grandiloquent,” if not “granular” (that can be written “g” above “l-r.”)
Having said that, an attached “k” at the start of a word could possibly be the prefixes “con,” “com,” or “count;” therefore “k-g” is pronounced “cong,” and is the quick kind for Congress. But a“k that is detached written above a term may be the prefix “counter” or “contra”; therefore “k” written over a “b”, as an example, is read “contrib” and it is the quick type for “contribute” or “contribution.”
It’s much the exact same with suffixes. A“g that is detached at the finish of a term is short for “gram,” as in “program.” A“k that is detached means “ical,” as with “medical.” And a“o” that is detached the area of “ology,” as in “biology.”
These kinds also can together be added to produce longer terms.
“Biological” is created “b-i” accompanied by a detached “o-k.” This way plagiarism checker, very very long, complex terms are paid off to 2 or 3 fast flicks for the pen, yet remain entirely legible to anybody who knows the Gregg system. Combined, the forms that are brief the abbreviation concept account fully for about 50 % of Gregg’s benefit over longhand. Not merely will be the letters simple and simply joined up with, you can find less of these to publish.
The element that is final makes Gregg therefore blazingly fast is a technique called “phrasing.” That way, numerous expressions that are common be dashed down in several shots without ever raising the pen through the page. Each of which is often written individually with an individual letter: “i,” written with a quick, right, upward swing that slopes off to the right, represents “it;” “l,” an extended, horizontal, upward-facing bend, represents “will;” and, as we’ve seen, “b,” the long, downward curving swing, represents “be. for instance, the phrase “it will be” consists of three common words” Phrasing lets you join all three of the letters in one single elegant, continuous form—“i-l-b”—that takes significantly less than a quarter-second to publish.
Here is “it is going to be” regarding the line that is first with “We have been” below it:
And you will find literally tens and thousands of these expressions in Gregg shorthand. Most of all, unlike quick kinds, they don’t require much memorization; they’re the merchandise of the few easy guidelines.
By the right time he passed away, in 1949, Gregg presided over an empire that reached from his head office on Fifth Avenue in Manhattan into nearly every college, company and courthouse in the united kingdom. As he ended up being fundamentally a publishing magnate—Gregg Publishing put away hundreds of textbooks, dictionaries, research guides, mags, and shorthand variations of classical literature—John Robert Gregg additionally oversaw a nationwide infrastructure of official official certification agencies, company schools, and testing facilities that endorsed the abilities of all of the shorthand that is professional. In the event that you desired to be an administrator secretary, you required a certification from Gregg saying you qualified at 150 terms each and every minute. You had to demonstrate you could write an astonishing 225 words per minute with better than 98 percent accuracy if you wanted to be a court reporter. Altogether, huge numbers of people passed through Gregg training additionally the Gregg official official certification system.
For pretty much a century, Gregg had been a crucial element of american culture. Because recently as the 1970s, nearly every senior high school in the united states taught Gregg. Undoubtedly, every company school & most universities offered shorthand that is gregg-certified. But Gregg’s decrease started whenever McGraw-Hill purchased Gregg Publishing, right after John Robert Gregg’s death. The rise of stenography devices within the 1940s and 1950s steadily drove shorthand through the courtroom (though there are a small number of “pen authors” when you look at the federal court system). The Dictaphone along with other recording products made verbatim note taking less much less crucial in any office. Plus some individuals state improvements in women’s rights additionally played a job when you look at the decrease of Gregg. The smartest, most talented women often ended up as secretaries or executive assistants and became gifted shorthand practitioners in a time when they were denied careers in fields like the law or medicine. Within the 1960s and 1970s, as they women started to proceed to better possibilities, those put aside never ever became quite because fast or skilled during the complexities of Gregg.
The genuine death knell for Gregg, though, ended up being the arrival of this laptop or computer within the 1980s. Also high-level professionals no much much longer dictated letters with their secretaries; they had written them on their own on their desktop computers. Businesses which used to own scores of skilled shorthand authors eliminated their steno swimming pools totally. Today, i am maybe perhaps not alert to any school that is high teaches Gregg. It really is nearly impossible to get it taught in colleges—with two exceptions in Kingsborough and Queensborough community universities in nyc, where Gregg article writers remain prized by some white glove legislation companies. The book that is only posted by the Gregg Division of McGraw-Hill could be the Gregg handbook, a workplace guide which contains no reference to shorthand.
But, as a technology for writing fast with pen and paper—still significant ability for reporters like me—Gregg shorthand has not been surpassed. Nowadays, you may need to purchase a vintage Gregg manual on e-Bay and show your self, but even although you simply discover the rules, Gregg will most likely increase your note speed that is taking. With repetition and day-to-day usage, it is quite normal to attain rates of 100 terms a moment or higher. And, paradoxically, shorthand is the perfect complement to the twenty-first Century technology regarding the smartpen.
In the end, shorthand—at minimum my shorthand—isn’t foolproof. And even though, for brief stretches, i will compose 120 terms each and every minute, the American that is average now at a lot more than 150 terms one minute, therefore something is inevitably lost when you look at the interpretation. With my trusty Sky smartpen, however, we don’t need certainly to worry. More often than not, once I circumvent to writing the storyline, I’m able to count on my notes that are handwritten brief quotes and back ground information. However when we need a lengthier, verbatim quote, I am able to make use of my records as a type of index to get the right area of the meeting, and tap there with my pen to listen to the playback. No longer associated with forward/reverse party with an electronic recorder when it is time for you to transcribe. It is a system that is almost flawless.